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SpringBoot JWT 登陆鉴权 SpringBoot集成SpringSecurity和JWT做登陆鉴权的实现

阿懒土灵   2021-04-22 我要评论

废话

目前流行的前后端分离让Java程序员可以更加专注的做好后台业务逻辑的功能实现,提供如返回Json格式的数据接口就可以。SpringBoot的易用性和对其他框架的高度集成,用来快速开发一个小型应用是最佳的选择。

一套前后端分离的后台项目,刚开始就要面对的就是登陆和授权的问题。这里提供一套方案供大家参考。

主要看点:

  • 登陆后获取token,根据token来请求资源
  • 根据用户角色来确定对资源的访问权限
  • 统一异常处理
  • 返回标准的Json格式数据

正文

首先是pom文件:

<dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
      <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
      <optional>true</optional>
    </dependency>
    <!--这是不是必须,只是我引用了里面一些类的方法-->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-solr</artifactId>
    </dependency>
        <!--这是不是必须,只是我引用了里面一些类的方法-->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.mybatis.spring.boot</groupId>
      <artifactId>mybatis-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
      <version>1.3.2</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>mysql</groupId>
      <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
      <scope>runtime</scope>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-boot-configuration-processor</artifactId>
      <optional>true</optional>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.springfox</groupId>
      <artifactId>springfox-swagger2</artifactId>
      <version>2.6.1</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.springfox</groupId>
      <artifactId>springfox-swagger-ui</artifactId>
      <version>2.6.1</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-rest</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-security</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework.security</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-security-jwt</artifactId>
      <version>1.0.9.RELEASE</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.jsonwebtoken</groupId>
      <artifactId>jjwt</artifactId>
      <version>0.9.0</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>

application.yml:

spring :
 datasource :
  url : jdbc:mysql://127.0.0.1:3306/les_data_center?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&allowMultiQueries=true&useAffectedRows=true&useSSL=false
  username : root
  password : 123456
  driverClassName : com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
 jackson:
  data-format: yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss
  time-zone: GMT+8
mybatis :
 config-location : classpath:/mybatis-config.xml
# JWT
jwt:
 header: Authorization
 secret: mySecret
 #token有效期一天
 expiration: 86400
 tokenHead: "Bearer "

接着是对security的配置,让security来保护我们的API

SpringBoot推荐使用配置类来代替xml配置。那这里,我也使用配置类的方式。

@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(prePostEnabled = true)
public class WebSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

  private final JwtAuthenticationEntryPoint unauthorizedHandler;

  private final AccessDeniedHandler accessDeniedHandler;

  private final UserDetailsService CustomUserDetailsService;

  private final JwtAuthenticationTokenFilter authenticationTokenFilter;

  @Autowired
  public WebSecurityConfig(JwtAuthenticationEntryPoint unauthorizedHandler,
               @Qualifier("RestAuthenticationAccessDeniedHandler") AccessDeniedHandler accessDeniedHandler,
               @Qualifier("CustomUserDetailsService") UserDetailsService CustomUserDetailsService,
               JwtAuthenticationTokenFilter authenticationTokenFilter) {
    this.unauthorizedHandler = unauthorizedHandler;
    this.accessDeniedHandler = accessDeniedHandler;
    this.CustomUserDetailsService = CustomUserDetailsService;
    this.authenticationTokenFilter = authenticationTokenFilter;
  }

  @Autowired
  public void configureAuthentication(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authenticationManagerBuilder) throws Exception {
    authenticationManagerBuilder
        // 设置UserDetailsService
        .userDetailsService(this.CustomUserDetailsService)
        // 使用BCrypt进行密码的hash
        .passwordEncoder(passwordEncoder());
  }
  // 装载BCrypt密码编码器
  @Bean
  public PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder() {
    return new BCryptPasswordEncoder();
  }

  @Override
  protected void configure(HttpSecurity httpSecurity) throws Exception {
    httpSecurity
        .exceptionHandling().accessDeniedHandler(accessDeniedHandler).and()
        // 由于使用的是JWT,我们这里不需要csrf
        .csrf().disable()
        .exceptionHandling().authenticationEntryPoint(unauthorizedHandler).and()
        // 基于token,所以不需要session
        .sessionManagement().sessionCreationPolicy(SessionCreationPolicy.STATELESS).and()

        .authorizeRequests()

        // 对于获取token的rest api要允许匿名访问
        .antMatchers("/api/v1/auth", "/api/v1/signout", "/error/**", "/api/**").permitAll()
        // 除上面外的所有请求全部需要鉴权认证
        .anyRequest().authenticated();

    // 禁用缓存
    httpSecurity.headers().cacheControl();

    // 添加JWT filter
    httpSecurity
        .addFilterBefore(authenticationTokenFilter, UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.class);
  }

  @Override
  public void configure(WebSecurity web) throws Exception {
    web.ignoring().antMatchers("/v2/api-docs",
        "/swagger-resources/configuration/ui",
        "/swagger-resources",
        "/swagger-resources/configuration/security",
        "/swagger-ui.html"
    );
  }

  @Bean
  @Override
  public AuthenticationManager authenticationManagerBean() throws Exception {
    return super.authenticationManagerBean();
  }
}

该类中配置了几个bean来供security使用。

  1. JwtAuthenticationTokenFilter:token过滤器来验证token有效性
  2. UserDetailsService:实现了DetailsService接口,用来做登陆验证
  3. JwtAuthenticationEntryPoint :认证失败处理类
  4. RestAuthenticationAccessDeniedHandler: 权限不足处理类

那么,接下来一个一个实现这些类:

/**
 * token校验,引用的stackoverflow一个答案里的处理方式
 * Author: JoeTao
 * createAt: 2018/9/14
 */
@Component
public class JwtAuthenticationTokenFilter extends OncePerRequestFilter {

  @Value("${jwt.header}")
  private String token_header;

  @Resource
  private JWTUtils jwtUtils;

  @Override
  protected void doFilterInternal(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, FilterChain chain) throws ServletException, IOException {
    String auth_token = request.getHeader(this.token_header);
    final String auth_token_start = "Bearer ";
    if (StringUtils.isNotEmpty(auth_token) && auth_token.startsWith(auth_token_start)) {
      auth_token = auth_token.substring(auth_token_start.length());
    } else {
      // 不按规范,不允许通过验证
      auth_token = null;
    }

    String username = jwtUtils.getUsernameFromToken(auth_token);

    logger.info(String.format("Checking authentication for user %s.", username));

    if (username != null && SecurityContextHolder.getContext().getAuthentication() == null) {
      User user = jwtUtils.getUserFromToken(auth_token);
      if (jwtUtils.validateToken(auth_token, user)) {
        UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken authentication = new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(user, null, user.getAuthorities());
        authentication.setDetails(new WebAuthenticationDetailsSource().buildDetails(request));
        logger.info(String.format("Authenticated user %s, setting security context", username));
        SecurityContextHolder.getContext().setAuthentication(authentication);
      }
    }
    chain.doFilter(request, response);
  }
}
/**
 * 认证失败处理类,返回401
 * Author: JoeTao
 * createAt: 2018/9/20
 */
@Component
public class JwtAuthenticationEntryPoint implements AuthenticationEntryPoint, Serializable {

  private static final long serialVersionUID = -8970718410437077606L;

  @Override
  public void commence(HttpServletRequest request,
             HttpServletResponse response,
             AuthenticationException authException) throws IOException {
    //验证为未登陆状态会进入此方法,认证错误
    System.out.println("认证失败:" + authException.getMessage());
    response.setStatus(200);
    response.setCharacterEncoding("UTF-8");
    response.setContentType("application/json; charset=utf-8");
    PrintWriter printWriter = response.getWriter();
    String body = ResultJson.failure(ResultCode.UNAUTHORIZED, authException.getMessage()).toString();
    printWriter.write(body);
    printWriter.flush();
  }
}

因为我们使用的REST API,所以我们认为到达后台的请求都是正常的,所以返回的HTTP状态码都是200,用接口返回的code来确定请求是否正常。

/**
* 权限不足处理类,返回403
 * Author: JoeTao
 * createAt: 2018/9/21
 */
@Component("RestAuthenticationAccessDeniedHandler")
public class RestAuthenticationAccessDeniedHandler implements AccessDeniedHandler {
  @Override
  public void handle(HttpServletRequest httpServletRequest, HttpServletResponse response, AccessDeniedException e) throws IOException, ServletException {
    //登陆状态下,权限不足执行该方法
    System.out.println("权限不足:" + e.getMessage());
    response.setStatus(200);
    response.setCharacterEncoding("UTF-8");
    response.setContentType("application/json; charset=utf-8");
    PrintWriter printWriter = response.getWriter();
    String body = ResultJson.failure(ResultCode.FORBIDDEN, e.getMessage()).toString();
    printWriter.write(body);
    printWriter.flush();
  }
}
/**
 * 登陆身份认证
 * Author: JoeTao
 * createAt: 2018/9/14
 */
@Component(value="CustomUserDetailsService")
public class CustomUserDetailsService implements UserDetailsService {
  private final AuthMapper authMapper;

  public CustomUserDetailsService(AuthMapper authMapper) {
    this.authMapper = authMapper;
  }

  @Override
  public User loadUserByUsername(String name) throws UsernameNotFoundException {
    User user = authMapper.findByUsername(name);
    if (user == null) {
      throw new UsernameNotFoundException(String.format("No user found with username '%s'.", name));
    }
    Role role = authMapper.findRoleByUserId(user.getId());
    user.setRole(role);
    return user;
  }
}

登陆逻辑:

 public ResponseUserToken login(String username, String password) {
    //用户验证
    final Authentication authentication = authenticate(username, password);
    //存储认证信息
    SecurityContextHolder.getContext().setAuthentication(authentication);
    //生成token
    final User user = (User) authentication.getPrincipal();
//    User user = (User) userDetailsService.loadUserByUsername(username);
    final String token = jwtTokenUtil.generateAccessToken(user);
    //存储token
    jwtTokenUtil.putToken(username, token);
    return new ResponseUserToken(token, user);
  }

private Authentication authenticate(String username, String password) {
    try {
      //该方法会去调用userDetailsService.loadUserByUsername()去验证用户名和密码,如果正确,则存储该用户名密码到“security 的 context中”
      return authenticationManager.authenticate(new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(username, password));
    } catch (DisabledException | BadCredentialsException e) {
      throw new CustomException(ResultJson.failure(ResultCode.LOGIN_ERROR, e.getMessage()));
    }
  }

自定义异常:

@Getter
public class CustomException extends RuntimeException{
  private ResultJson resultJson;

  public CustomException(ResultJson resultJson) {
    this.resultJson = resultJson;
  }
}

统一异常处理:

/**
 * 异常处理类
 * controller层异常无法捕获处理,需要自己处理
 * Created by jt on 2018/8/27.
 */
@RestControllerAdvice
@Slf4j
public class DefaultExceptionHandler {

  /**
   * 处理所有自定义异常
   * @param e
   * @return
   */
  @ExceptionHandler(CustomException.class)
  public ResultJson handleCustomException(CustomException e){
    log.error(e.getResultJson().getMsg().toString());
    return e.getResultJson();
  }
}

所有经controller转发的请求抛出的自定义异常都会被捕获处理,一般情况下就是返回给调用方一个json的报错信息,包含自定义状态码、错误信息及补充描述信息。

值得注意的是,在请求到达controller之前,会被Filter拦截,如果在controller或者之前抛出的异常,自定义的异常处理器是无法处理的,需要自己重新定义一个全局异常处理器或者直接处理。

Filter拦截请求两次的问题

跨域的post的请求会验证两次,get不会。网上的解释是,post请求第一次是预检请求,Request Method: OPTIONS。
解决方法:

在webSecurityConfig里添加

.antMatchers(HttpMethod.OPTIONS, "/**").permitAll()

就可以不拦截options请求了。

这里只给出了最主要的代码,还有controller层的访问权限设置,返回状态码,返回类定义等等。

所有代码已上传GitHub,项目地址

到此这篇关于SpringBoot集成SpringSecurity和JWT做登陆鉴权的实现的文章就介绍到这了,更多相关SpringBoot JWT 登陆鉴权内容请搜索以前的文章或继续浏览下面的相关文章希望大家以后多多支持! 


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